A New Framework for Discovering Knowledge from Two-Dimensional Structured Data Using Layout Formal Graph System

Authors: Tomoyuki Uchida, Yuko Itokawa, Takayoshi Shoudai, Tetsuhiro Miyahara, and Yasuaki Nakamura.

Source: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence Vol. 1968, 2000, 141 - 155.

Abstract. We present a new framework for discovering knowledge from two-dimensional structured data by using Inductive Logic Programming. Two-dimensional graph structured data such as image or map data are widely used for representing relations and distances between various objects. First, we define a layout term graph suited for representing two-dimensional graph structured data. A layout term graph is a pattern consisting of variables and two-dimensional graph structures. Moreover, we propose Layout Formal Graph System (LFGS) as a new logic programming system having a layout term graph as a term. LFGS directly deals with graphs having positional relations just like first order terms. Second, we show that LFGS is more powerful than Layout Graph Grammar, which is a generating system consisting of a context-free graph grammar and positional relations. This indicates that LFGS has the richness and advantage of representing knowledge about two-dimensional structured data.

Finally, we design a knowledge discovery system, which uses LFGS as a knowledge representation language and refutably inductive inference as a learning method. In order to give a theoretical foundation of our knowledge discovery system, we give the set of weakly reducing LFGS programs which is a sufficiently large hypothesis space of LFGS programs and show that the hypothesis space is refutably inferable from complete data.

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